Dr. Mario Martinez is a clinical neuropsychologist. In 1998 he developed his theory of Biocognitive Science based on research that demonstrates how thoughts and their biological expression co-emerge within a cultural history. Dr. Martinez argues that current mechanical models of the life sciences study disease by reducing the body to pathological parts. He proposes that the healing process must include the cultural history that contextualizes the mind-body expression of health and illness. He proposes instead, to challenge the cultural beliefs that perpetuate genetic helplessness.